On the path of circular economy for the developmen

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With the development of our social economy and the continuous improvement of living standards, the amount of garbage is growing. The growing garbage problem is a major challenge to our environment. In order to maintain sustainable development, our human society must pay attention to the limited bearing capacity of natural resources and ecosystems. Therefore, taking the road of recycling economy, such as harmless treatment and recycling, plays an important role in reducing the environmental burden and protecting resources today

the idea of treatment and recycling system should go deep into every social stratum of the country. In this regard, developed countries in the world are at the forefront, and Germany is at the forefront of developed countries. A few years ago, Germany's waste treatment system was on the verge of collapse. According to the situation at that time, it is expected that by 2000, the treatment capacity of waste accumulation and burial will reach the limit, and German packaging waste accounted for 30% of the weight and 50% of the volume of domestic waste in 1990. The beginning of the recycling system in Germany stems from the limitations of resources, garbage dump capacity and plastic energy utilization methods. Everything starts with the packaging regulations. The packaging regulations in 1991 were the decisive driving force to promote the recycling of packaging waste in Germany. Germany is at the forefront of the world in packaging waste management and has established the world's first packaging waste recycling system

many cities in China are also facing the problems of increasing waste volume and limited landfill sites, so many people in China prefer incineration and sanitary landfill. Building an incineration facility requires a large investment, and the cost of maintaining daily operation is also very high. In Germany, this idea has fallen behind. After landfilling and incineration, it has now entered the stage of reuse. Only the unusable garbage can be landfilled and incinerated, which saves and protects resources and has both ecological and economic benefits. The following is a brief introduction to the recycling system of waste sales packaging in Germany

first, packaging laws and regulations are the policy basis for the packaging industry to take the road of circular economy

the principle of packaging law is: producer principle

The purpose of the packaging law is to avoid or reduce the impact of packaging waste on the environment

the German government promulgated the law on the avoidance and utilization of packaging waste (hereinafter referred to as the packaging law) on June 12, 1991. In 1993, the EU formulated the EU packaging guidelines according to the German Packaging Law. In order to adapt to the provisions of the EU packaging guidelines, it was revised on August 21st, 1998. It is the first law in the world that producers are responsible for waste recycling and utilization

firstly, the generation of packaging waste should be avoided. Secondly, when dealing with packaging waste, priority should be given to reuse, material application and other forms of recycling. For the first time, the principle of avoidance, reduction and reuse was written into the law. The purpose is to minimize the production and landfill of packaging waste and save resources. In short, packaging materials have never been garbage but valuable materials. At the same time, the packaging law also stipulates the obligations of producers and sellers for the first time, that is, the producers and sellers of packaging must bear the obligation to recycle and recycle the waste packaging materials introduced into the circulation field by them. At the same time, the packaging law also stipulates that producers and sellers can undertake the obligation of recycling and reuse of waste packaging brought into the circulation field by themselves, or entrust a third party to perform the obligation of recycling and reuse (that is, the dual system pointed out in the regulations, also known as the binary system). Most businessmen choose to entrust a third party. The third party must have an organizational system with a wide coverage, which must ensure that the collected waste packaging is not landfilled or incinerated, but reused as raw materials. Packaging regulations provide a legal basis for the recycling of packaging waste

the packaging law also stipulates specific quota indicators and deadlines for the recycling of all packaging wastes. The revised packaging law, which came into force in August 1998, stipulates the reuse rate rather than the recovery rate in the old law. Green dot Germany Recycling System Co., Ltd. (DSD) is responsible for the classification, collection, treatment and recycling of sales packaging. The reuse rate is determined according to the packaging volume of the green dot license issued by DSD company. Since January 1st, 1999, the lowest reuse rates are glass 75%, tinplate (tinplate) 70%, aluminum 60%, paper/carton/paperboard 70%, composite packaging 60% and plastic packaging 60% respectively. The recycling rate achieved by DSD company far exceeds the provisions of the packaging law

the packaging law has been revised four times, and the fourth revised packaging law has officially entered into force in January 2006

green dot German Recycling System Co., Ltd. (DSD)

another recycling system (also known as "binary" treatment system or "dual" system) coexisting with the local government waste treatment system, namely green dot German Recycling System Co., Ltd. (DSD) was established in Cologne on September 28, 1990, by About 95 industrial and commercial enterprises in the consumer goods industry and commerce were established under the initiative of the federal Federation of German industries and the German Chamber of Commerce and industry. He is to participate in private economic institutions under the management of their own stress and strain relationship, which is no longer a linear relationship, according to the requirements of the upcoming packaging law. At that time, DSD company was the only national policy implementation and coordination organization specializing in packaging according to German packaging regulations, which was equal to the collection, sorting and recycling of stress waste with a strain rate 50% higher than the zero stress point strain rate. DSD has undertaken the recycling and reuse obligations of every enterprise nationwide and in various fields, freeing them from their recycling and reuse obligations. At the beginning of its establishment, DSD company was a non-profit limited company with about 600 industrial and commercial enterprises as its shareholders. The 12 member board of supervisors supervises the work of the board of directors. The 12 members of the board of supervisors are representatives from the packaging industry, consumer goods industry, commerce and waste treatment industry. At present, China's economic growth has slowed down, with three members each. In addition, a management committee plays the role of coordinating relevant institutions and organizations. The members of this management committee are representatives of political, industrial, commercial, economic and scientific circles and consumer organizations

The DSD company was changed into a joint-stock company without securities trading in 1997, and it is also a non-profit company without profit-making attempts. The funds required for the business activities of DSD company come from the way of issuing the "green dot" trademark license to the enterprise to collect the green dot royalties. The state has not invested in the establishment of this system. The only income of DSD company comes from the license fee of the "green dot" trademark, which is not subsidized by the government

since December 15, 2005, the company has changed into a profit-making limited company

the basis of DSD's work is the packaging law issued by the government. The federal government does not supervise DSD, but 16 state governments do. DSD company must submit the quantity flow certificate to the state government once a year (in May), that is, DSD company certifies that it has completed the recycling amount of each packaging material specified in the packaging regulations. DSD cannot get financial support from the government. However, there is often constructive information exchange between DSD company and the government, because it is very important for DSD company. Whether the government has changed the legal provisions of DSD company, and at the same time, the government also needs to know whether the decrees they issued are sufficient and how to operate in practice

how does DSD operate? Every German has five options to deal with possibilities. Household garbage cans and biological garbage cans are the scope of local government organizations and finance, glass and yellow garbage bags are the finance of DSD company, and the finance of collecting paper and cartons are separated. In the collected paper, the proportion of packaging is 25%, and that of newspapers is 75%. DSD company is only responsible for the recycling of packaging, so the local government and DSD company jointly undertake finance and economics, accounting for 75% of local government and 25% of DSD company

since the manufacturer prospered the market and provided customers with more economical and practical experimental machines in April 2005, the business scope of DSD company has expanded to include the recycling of packaging waste, as well as the recycling, treatment and utilization of disposable beverage packaging and electronic waste with the nature of deposit

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